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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  May 9, 2015 1:30am-3:31am EDT

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defandom. -- the fandom. [applause] i want to address those who voted labour yesterday. today you all feel disappointed, even bleak. but while we may have lost the election the argument of our campaign will not go away. the issue of our unequal country will not go away. this is the challenge of our time. the fight goes on. and whoever is our new leader, i know labour will keep making the case for a country that works for working people once again. [applause]
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i believe in our united kingdom. not just because it is our country, but because it is the best way of serving the working people of our country. you know, i believe there is more that unites us than divides us across the whole united kingdom. and all of us in the months and years ahead must rise to the challenge of keeping our country together. finally, i want to say something to my party. thank you to you. thank you for the privilege. i join this party at age 17. i never dreamed i would lead it. it has been an incredible force for progress from workers' rights to the n.h.s. to the minimum wage. no other party in british politics can boast these achievements.
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and yet it will be a force for progress and change once again. to all the labour party member you're the most loyal supporters, amazing people. i thank all of you today. i'm truly sorry i did not succeed. aye done my best for nearly five years. now you need to show your responsibility. your responsibility, not simply to mourn our defeat, but to pick yourself up and continue the fight. we've come back before and this party will come back again. [cheers and applause] and if i may, i think that everyone in our party conduct
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this leadership election with the same decency, civility and comradeship that we believe is the way the country should be run. i believe i have brought a culture to this party of an ability to have disagreements without being disagreeable. i urge everyone to keep this in mind in the months ahead. finally, i want to say this. the course of progress and social justice -- the -- justice is never simple or straightforward. change happens because people don't give up. they keep demanding change. this is my faith. what we see in -- where we see injustice we must tackle it. in a couple of hours, i will no longer be leading this party. but you see, for me, that has never been the only way to achieve change. i believe it isn't simply leaders who achieve change, this is people who make change happen. i will never give up on that idea.
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i will never give up on that cause. i will never give up on fighting for the britain i believe in. that faith will always be my faith. that fight will always be my fight. that cause will always be my cause. and i will always be there in that cause with all of you. thank you very much. [cheers and applause] [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2015]
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prime minister cameron: i have just been to see her majesty the queen and i will now form a majority conservative government. i've been proud to lead the first coalition government in 70 years and i want to thank those who work sod hard to make it a success and in particular on this day, nick clegg. elections can be bruising clashes of ideas and arguments and a lot of people who believe profoundly in public service have seen that service cut short. ed miliband rang me this morning
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to wish me luck with the new government. it was a typically generous gesture from someone who is public service for the right reasons. the government i led did important work. it laid the foundations for a better future. now we must build on them. i truly believe we're on the brink of something special in our country. we can make britain a place where a good life is in reach for everyone who is willing to work and do the right thing. our manifest toe is a manifesto for working people and as a majority government, we will be able to deliver all of it. indeed, it is the reason why i think majority government is more accountable. three million apprenticeships more help with child care, helping 30 million people cope with the cost of living by cutting their taxes. building homes that people are able to buy and own. creating millions more jobs that give people the chance of a
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better future. and yes, we will deliver that referendum on our future in europe. as we conduct this vital work, we must ensure that we bring our country together. as i said in the small hours of this morning we will govern as a party of one nation, one united kingdom. that means ensuring this recovery reaches all parts of our country, from north to south, from east to west. and indeed it means rebalancing our economy. building that northern power house. it means giving everyone in our country a chance so no matter where you're from, you have the opportunity to make the most of your life. it means giving the poorest people the chance of training, a job, and hope for the future. it means that for children who don't get the best start in life, there must be the nursery education and good schooling that can transform their life chances. and of course it means bringing
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together the different nations of our united kingdom. i have always believed in governing with respect. that's why in the last parliament, we devolved power to scotland and wales and gave the people of scotland a referendum on whether to stay inside the united kingdom. in this parliament, i'll stay true to my word and implement as fast as i can the deaf lution that all parties agreed for wales, scotland and northern ireland. governing with respect means recognizing that the different nations of our united kingdom have their own governments as well as the united kingdom government. both are important. and indeed with our plans, the governments of these nations will become more powerful, with wider responsibilities. in scotland, our plans are to recite the strongest government anywhere in the world with important powers over taxation. and no constitutional settlement
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will be complete if it did not offer also fairness to england. when i stood here five years ago, our country was in the grip of an economic crisis. five years on, britain is so much stronger. but the real opportunities lie ahead. everything i've seen over the last five years and indeed during this election campaign, has proved once again that this is a country with unrivaled skills and creativeness. a country with such good humor and such great compassion. and i'm convinced that if we draw on all of this, then we can take these items with our proud history and build an even prouder future. together we can make great britain greater still. thank you. [applause]
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>> later in the day in london british party leaders and others attended a memorial service to mark the end of world war ii in europe. known as v.e. day. the service started with a national two minutes of silence followed by a wreath laying ceremony and remarks by the brandson of former british prime minister winston churchill. this is about 30 minutes. >> the prime minister david cameron. conservatives have won a majority overnight. david cameron has returned from
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buckingham palace. ed miliband said in a press conference today that his resignation would take effect after this service. nick clegg announced his resignation as well. this morning the prime minister said we should start by remembering those who gave such service and sacrifice to cey our country. but also to save our democracy which we have seen in action today. the first minister of wales.
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>> his royal highness, the duke of york. so on this the 70th anniversary of victory in europe, as we prepare for two-minute silence, all the elements are in place at thesen taff to pay tribute to that generation -- at thesen taff to pay tribute to -- at the cenotaph to pay tribute to that generation and all those men and
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women. [chiming]
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>> wales and scotland.
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>> representatives of the service chiefs.
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>> next wreath laid by the national president of the royal brit herb legion. the legion formed in 1921 to support the veterans of the great war. now after many years later and so many more lives have been sacrificed, the legion continues to offer support to the members
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of the armed services. vice admiral sir peter wilkinson. last wreath laid by randolph churchill and robert gale. gale who was loading his landing craft with ammunition after the amphibious invasion of rangoon in 1945 when he heard about the end of the war in europe.
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>> on this day, at this hour we commemorate the 70th anniversary of v.e. day. we give thanks for all who played their part in achieving victory in the second world war. we remember with sorrow all those who were killed and whose lives were changed forever.
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>> the right reverend nigel stock, bishop to her majesty's forces. randolph churchill will now read extracts from his great grandfather, winston churchill. mr. churchill: the extract from winston churchill's speech of the 8th of may, 1945. yesterday morning at 2:41 a.m. at headquarters, general goebbel the representative of the german high command and grand admiral donners, designated head of the german state signed the act of unconditional surrender of all german land, sea, and air forces
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in europe to the allied expeditionary forces and simultaneously to the soviet high command. today is victory in europe day. hostilities will end officially at one minute after midnight tonight. but in the interest of saving lives, the cease fire began yesterday to be sounded all along the front. and our channels are to be freed today. the german war is therefore at an end. after years of intense preparation, germany -- germany hurled herself on poland at the beginning of september, 1939 and in pursuance of our guarantee to poland and agreement with the french republic, great britain
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the british empire and the commonwealth of nations declared war upon this foul aggression. we from this island and from our united empire maintained the struggle single handed for a whole year until we were joined by the military might of soviet russia and later by the overwhelming power and resources of the united states of america. we may allow ourselveses a brief period of rejoicing, but let us not forget a moment the toil and efforts that lie ahead. we must now devote all our strength and resources to the completion of our task, both at home and abroad. advance britannia, long live the
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cause of freedom. god save the king.
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>> almighty god, grant we beseech ye that we do here on earth the memory of those who served our country and -- the crown may be so inspired by the spirit of love and fortitude that forgetting all selfish and unworthy moments we may live only to thy glory and to the service of mankind through jesus christ, our lord. amen. >> ♪ o god our help in ages past our hope for years to come
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♪ ♪
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♪ ♪
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>> teach us, good lord, to serve thee as you deserve. to give and not to count the cost. to fight and not to heed the wounds. to toil and not to seek for rest. to labor and not to ask for any reward save that of knowing that we do thy will through jesus christ our lord. amen. our father which art in heaven. hallowed be thc. give us this day our daily bread and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them that trespass against us. and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. for thine is the kingdom, the power and the glory, forever
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and ever, amen. and to god's gracious mercy and protection we commit you. the lord bless you and keep you. the lord make his face to shine upon you and be gracious to you. the lord lift up the light of his countenance upon you and give you his peace this day and always. amen. ♪
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♪ ♪ >> the duke of york leaving by the foreign and commonwealth
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office leading the dispersal. the politicians take their leave. they have joined this pause in national life. victory for some, defeat for others. they have come here to pay their respects. robert gayle, the royal naval veteran, wreath-layer. representatives of the three services, the navy, the army,
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the air force. >> memorials in france and all over the world. beautifully maintained cemeteries and memorials. >> today is the start of the v.e. day weekend. it is v.e. day, but it is a solemn remembrance today. the mood will change. >> i think the mood will change. there was obviously a solemnity in 1945 especially for those
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who had lost loved ones in the war as so many had. but then it turned to celebration. but not like the one from 1918. >> do you think it was because the end was a long time coming? >> i think so. the people of britain was much greater affected by the second world war than they were the first with rationing, and attempted bombing of cities. >> the invitation now goes out to the public to lay a wreath. the all-embracing invitation to take part in today's service of remembrance. >> one sees in the groups of veterans there, so many branches of the services. i have spotted at least three old soldiers wearing colors
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with the polish eagle. we must remember the three alleys that served alongside britain in the second world war. >> and of course the germans who fled nazi germany. >> germans jewish and non-jewish came here, loathing the nazi regime and took part in fighting that regime. the military was made up of many german refugees. >> the 19 standards of the british liege -- legion. ♪
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>> it is as if the silence has been broken. now we have the applause and a sense of celebration can begin. >> yes. the anniversary must bring back memories both happy and unhappy for those veterans today, remember come maids who made the ultimate sacrifice in the cause of freedom. >> on this day 70 years ago, peace at last returned to europe. it would be another three months before victory in the far east was seen. then the most destructive
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conflict -- global conflict ever seen was finally over. shortly the barriers will be removed, and the public, having laid their wreaths, will disperse too. >> germany also marked the 70 anniversary of the end of world war ii in europe with a ceremony in germany's lower house of parliament. it included speeches by both either of the houses of parliament as well as a historian. this is an hour and 15 minutes.
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>> guests, the 8th of may was a day of liberation.
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when another spoke these words in his address 30 years ago today in bonn, not the first person to express this view, but the first to do so with the authority which resides in the head of state, it did not reflect broad public opinion. but perceptions were changing, and today it is a view which is shared by the majority of germans. the 8th of may marked the end of a war which was started and waged by germany, by a german government with criminal energy . by the end it had claimed more than 50 million lives including the lives of around
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eight million germans. 70 years ago today the guns finally fell silent in europe after almost six years. after 2,077 days of terrible war. germany's unconditional surrender followed its total defeat in a war whose criminal nature most germans had failed to recognize until it was too late. indeed, many were reluctant to admit it to themselves for years afterwards. the vienese write wrote it is a measure of the self-delusion in which the germans have been living. the enormity of their delusion, the blinding power of their hopeless belief which is so
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profoundly disquieting. and he asked what is left of them? what else are they without their dreadful military faith? where else can they fall? what will catch them? end of quote. the germans could not have fallen further from grace politically, economically and morally. so it is even more astonishing that despite our country's guilt, it's fall was broken by the other european nations, by our neighbors on whom germany itself had up flicted so much unimaginable suffering -- add
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inflicted so much unimaginable suffering. our enables' willingness to embark on a journey of reconciliation is as fantastic as any other. ladies and gentlemen, today we remember the remember the millions of victims of a uniquely terrible war of annihilation against other nations and people, against slovs and the european jews. the 8th of may was therefore a day of liberation for the entire continent. but it was not a day on which the jermaine apps liberated -- on which the germans liberated themselves. while we would not wish to forget the brave germans who mounted resistance to hitter,
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but those serving with the western allies and in the red army ended national socialist tyranny and suffered unimaginable losses. federal presidents, i am confident i am speaking on behalf of the entire chamber in thanking you and also the federal chancellor and the foreign minister for your visits and gestures and speeches which you have held over the past few days at cemeteries, at memorial sites and also at concentration camps. [applause] during the dying days of the war, the soviet troops in berlin focused their energies on seizing the buildings.
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but after the fire in february of 1933, it ceased to be the seat of parliament under the national socialists for many years. indeed it did not regain that status for another five decades after the end of the war. when this finally became possible after german reunification we made a conscious decision to restore and preserve much of the graffiti that the soviet soldiers had scribbled on the walls during those final days of the war in may 1945, because they are are authentic symbols of the end of the car and the chance of a new beginning. ladies and gentlemen, the 8th of may was both an end and a beginning. it was a day of liberation.
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for the war had to end, of course, before it was possible to make a fresh start, with new opportunities to shape a different and better future. this new beginning itself bore the scars of war. the united nations charter and the ambitious project to overcome europe's failed nationalism through a union of states cop trasted starkly with a nuclear stand-off in a bi polar world. with the decades of division of our country. the germans learned the anti-totalitarian lessons of the past and thus embarked on the long road west.
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doing so separately at first and then finally together. professor with tht phrase, the long road he is west, you aptly sum up how the end of war was to affect the federal republic. it is precisely because the 8th of may was not about german liberation that the day of our past bake a process of painful internal liberation. but this does not mean liberating ourselves from other history. on the contrary, it means facing up to history even when it is difficult to bear. we are convinced that it is only through awareness of our bitter experience that we can shape the present and the future in a politically responsible manner and serve peace and freedom in the world. last year, professor you
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pointed out more clearly than others that we are living at a time of great global political change and that these changes have shaken many of the believes that were born out of history and were previously regard as absolute. in light of these challenges i wish to thank you for your willingness to explain from a historian's and active citizen's perspective what the 8th of may means for us today. but first, we will hear the second movement of joseph heiden's string quarter set in c major, a somewhat melancholy variation of themes known throughout the world. heiden composed the melody in
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1797 during the french revolutionary wars as a tribute to the austrian emperor. and as a challenge to the marshall spirit of the government. later, during the german so-called premarch, the interlude between the fest val and the beginning of the parliament another wrote versus to accompany the melody, voicing an impassioned plea for a democratic constitution. the eventful history of this song of germans mirrors the germans' long road west as it is called by the professor in his semi-necessarily work. -- seminal work.
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the long road west encapsulates the twists and turns of germany's journey from the beginning to the perversion by national socialism. and up until the federal republic unity and freedom as the guiding principles of a democratic germany a jermaine which for seven decades has lived in peace and freedom with its neighbors. we are grateful for this, and well always remain in debted to our friends, neighbors and partners. [applause]
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[applause] [applause] >> federal president president of the german bundelag president of the federal
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constitutional court members excellence says, ladies and gentlemen. in the whole of german history there, is no greater water shed than the date whose 70th anniversary we are commemorating today. the 8th of may 1945. it marks the end of the second world war in europe, the collapse of the nazi regime, which had unleashed that war and the end of the german reich . for 12 years the nazis had fervently evoked german national unity.
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as the regime met its end, it was unclear whether the germans would ever live in a unified country again. in his historic speech marking the 40th anniversary of the german reich's unconditional surrender, the federal president of the day warned the german people not to separate the 8th of may, 1945, from the 30th of january, 1933 the date when the reich president appointed hitter as chancellor. he argued that the 8th of may 1945, should however be recognized as the end of the
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wrong past of german history an end that contained the seeds of a better future. the wrong past did not begin in 1933. much of the german elite, and indeed of society as a whole regarded the first german democracy as a product of germany's defeat in the first world war. as the type of state embodied by the victorious western powers as an un-german system. during the first world war, well-known academics and writers contrasted the ideals of the french revolution of 1789 for liberty equality and fraternity with the german
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ideas of 1914. that would be the glorification of a strong state with a lillard terry as its linchpin -- with a military as its linchpin and an allegedly german socialism. when the republic democracy failed and germany shifted to a semi-authoritarian regime later, hitter was able to appeal successfully to the widespread facility toward western democracy. while at the same time exploiting one of the democratic achievements of bismark's reich, general and equal suffrage in elections,
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which had been extended to women as well as men since the revolution of 1918 and 1919. the nazi's electoral successes can no be explained without taking into account the history reservations of germans of western government. his popularity reached such heights that, in the world of a british historian hitter himself became a believer in his own consult by 1936 at the latest. in the course of the second world war the fewerer was diminished by the setbacks in
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the winter of 1941 and in particular by the defeat at stalingrad in 1943. but it did not die. in fact, it even experienced a brief relief of sorts. after the failed assassination attempt on july 20, 1944. many now believe that hitter really might be allied with providence and only he could save germany. the final work before his death in exile in the united states in 1945 a few weeks before the end of the war the german philosopher interpreted hitter's political career as a sort of triumph of myths over
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reason. and this triumph as a result of the soviet crisis, and i quote. in politics we are always living on volcanic soil. we must be prepared for abrupt convulsions and eruptions. in all critical moments of man's social life. con congressional forces that resist the old mythical conceptions are no longer sure of themselves. in these moments the time has come again. the mist has really not been vanquished or subrogated. it is always there lurking in the dark and waiting for its hour and opportunity. this hour comes as soon as the
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other forces of man's social life, for one reason or another, lose their strength and are no longer able to combat the demonic mythical powers. in view of the eruptions we have experienced in germany in recent months and the anti-semitic insightment and violence here and in other european countries, his words still hold a truly disturbing relevance today. they warn us. they warn us to heed at all times the real lesson of german history from 1933 to 1945. it is the obligation to respect in all circumstances the
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inalienable dignity of every human being. [applause] germany's second defeat in the 20th century was a total defeat, and it dealt a far greater blow to german self-confidence than the defeat of 1918. it was not the case that an overwhelming majority of jermaine of germans majority of germans saw the ally's victory as liberation. unlike the people for whom this victory brought liberation from german rule and tyranny, for
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many germans, the collapse of the nazi rule and collapse of their faith in the fuhrer, and their collapse of a hope of a final german victory. the unconditional surrender was initially perceived as liberation only by those germans who had already or always realized the criminal nature of hitter's rule. -- hitler's rule. in the provisional council in the stuttgart confession of guilt in 1945 of a solidarity of guilt between the church and the people. this met with widespread opposition even within the church. one sentence in particular was
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seen as an inappropriate confirmation as the ally's aversion of the collective guilt. endless suffering has been brought down on many peoples and countries. end quote. the worst of all the crimes against humanity committed by the nazis, the murder of around six million european jews, was not expressly mentioned in the stuttgart expression of guilt. decades would pass before germany came to recognize, not least due to the research of many, that the holocaust is the
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central fact of 20th century german history. at the same time another realization dawned. the victory, which had been won over germany at immense sacrifice by allied soldiers and not least by the red army had in a sense liberated the germans from themselves, liberated in the sense of giving them the chance to break free from political delusions which separated germany from the western democracies. in cultural terms germany had always been a country of the old occident. germany had participated in and played a vital role in shaping
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the separation of powers in the middle ages beginning with the separation of spiritual and other powers, as well with the process from human nix to the re-formation and the conflict. however, some essential political lessons of the enlightenment, the ideals of the american revolution of 1776 and the french revolution of 1789, the ideals of nailable human rights, the sovereignty of the people and democracy had been rejected by influential german elites until well into the toth century. it was only the experience of the german catastrophe in the
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period 1933 to 1945 when german opposition to the west's political ideals reached its peak, which gradually eroded things. the opportunity which arose after 1945 to build a second parliamentary democracy this time one which would be functional and capable of defending itself was only offered to part of germany, however. the free western occupation zone, which would later become the federal republic of germany and west berlin. those germans living in the other part of the country were denied political freedom for four and a half decades. the federal republic's
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progressive opening to the political culture of the west and emergence of a self-critical historical culture were linked. it took sometimes serious journalistic and political debates to drive these processes forward. a debate about the german empire's key role in the developments which led to the first world war was of great significance in this context. it took time to overcome the still influential apologyist's interpretations of german history. and it took time to counteract the widespread tendency to regard the german people as
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hitler's first victims, and for people to absolve themselves of any share of responsibility for the wrongs perpetrated in that period. now there are markers plaques and memorials in many german towns and cities dedicated to the jewish and other victims of that time. placed there not by the state, but by civic initiatives and often school classes which devote themselves to researching the history of their local area during the so-called third reich. the process of addressing the war crimes perpetrated by the nazis, and in particular those in the german courts was very slow to get off the ground.
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it began with the trial in 1958. as late as 1986 public debate took place which has gone down in germanyian history as a dispute among historians. a dispute about the place in history of the nazi's murder of the jews, a genocide which led britain's four-time prime minister, winston churchill to observe in a letter to his foreign minister on june 11, 1944 that, quote, "there is no doubt this is the most horrible crime ever committed in the whole history of the world, and it has been done by scientific
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machinery by normally civilized men in the name of a great state and one of the leading races of europe." end of quote. many germans have traveled a long and painful road before they could, looking back, agree with this judgment from a former enemy. but, if they had been willing to face up to the unparalleled monstrosity of the holocaust, to the murder of tens of thousands of people with intellectual disabilities and countless homosexuals, if they hadn't been willing to accept responsibility for their terrible war crimes committed in european countries occupied and ravaged by germany, how
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could the federal republic of germany ever have become a respected member of the international community again? it was particularly hard for the millions of german refugees to recognize that their suffering was a consequence of germany's use of military force . however, after the fall of the berlin wall on the 9th of november 1989, these symbolic events of the revolution in europe, and the culmination of a series of events stretching back to poland in august of 1980 when they unexpectedly
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returned to the international political agenda, it was clear to the ottavino whelming majority of germans that there could only be a reunified germany within its 1945 borders. in other words the german question could only be resolved if another major problem the polish question, was resolved at the same time. that is exactly what happened with the treaty and the german polish border treaty of november of 1990. these are two treaties which recognized once and for all in a form binding under international law the existing german polish border along the two rivers.
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the historic significance of november of 1990 the date when the german democratic republic acceded to the german republic, was summarized by someone at a ceremony as follows. the day has come on which, for the first time in history, the whole of germany takes its lasting place in the circle of western democracies. unlike the german reich, which met its end on the 8th of may 1945 reunion fight germany was, from the very start, integrated into super national
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organizations such as the european union and the atlantic alliance. it is a post classical nation, which with the application of states, exercises some of its sovereign rights jointly with other stands and has transferred them to international institutions. germany's reunion cation -- reunification in 1990 was there -- which stood in the way of a western style democracy. that was the basis for germany's second chance. as it was put in july of 1990, a german american historian who
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was forced to immigrate by hitler. germany has not finished the process of confronting its own past, nor will it ever do so. every generation must search for its own way of understanding a history as contradictory as germany's. there are many achievements in this history, not least since 1945 about which the citizens of the federal republic of germany can be glad, and which they can be produced -- proud. however, accepting ownership of this history must include a
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willingness to face up to the dark side of the past. no one expects later generation toss feel guilt for crimes which were committed by germans, in germany's name long before they were born. that said, an essential part of assuming responsibility for one's own country is the determination to be conscious of the country's entire history. [applause] this applies to all germans, regardless of whether their forebearers lived here before 1945 or did not immigrate here until later. and it applies to those who
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have chosen to become germans ho-ho make that choice in the future. [applause] even if the germans were to give into the convenient temptation of no longer want to go remember the guilt germans incurred after 1933 and especially during the second world war they would still be constantly confronted with the fact that the victims' descendents cannot forget this history so easily. d.s.s. and others committed crimes in many places, crimes which will never be erased from the collective memory of the people's affected.
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these include the siege and deliberate salvation of lenin grad which lasted almost 900 days and cost between 6 hawkeye and 800,000 people their lives the death of half of the 5.7 million soviet prisoners of war. and the rise the up rising in 1943 and the systemic destruction of the polish capital in october of 1944. the names and places such as these are better known in germany than others in serbia, greece and italy. yet these names, too, and there
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are many more, stand for massacres which still cast shadows today. there is no moral justification for not keeping the memory of such atrocities alive in germany or for are forget ig the moral obligations arising from them. [applause] >> the same is true of the inhuman treatment of millions of false laborers, particularly the eastern workers, and especially the jews, for whom forced labor was almost invariably followed by their murder. it is impossible to draw a line
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in our history at this point. [applause] >> in addition to the danger of forgetting there is in fact another risk regarding how we address the darkest chapter in germanyian history. the danger -- of german history, the danger of it being raised for political purposes. when germany participates in attempts by the international community to prevent an imminent genocide in another country, there is no need to invoke's wits. it has not given germany the right to look away. the nazi's crimes against
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humanity are not an argument that justifies germany remaining on the sidelines in cases where there are compelling reasons to take join actions in other countries under the international community's responsibility to protect. [applause] >> any instrumentalization of the murder of the european jews much debated by day-to-day politics, trivializes this cream. it seems to facilitate responsible actions in the present. this meems -- means firstly,
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that the germans must not allow themselves to be paralyzed by contemplation of their history. secondly, political decisions must not be built up to be the only true lesson of germany's past. any attempt to justify a special german morality by citing national socialism leads us down the wrong path. [applause] >> nonetheless germany does still have obligations arising directly or indirectly from german policy in the period from 1933 to 1945. among the foremost obligations that should be mentioned in this context are these special relations with israel. which have developed over the
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past five decades. yet, in europe as well, the nazi era still casts a shadow a past that will not pass. no, ma'am did the german reich under hitler's leadership trample on the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of many european countries by entering into the hitler-stalin pact and invading poland it also paved the way for europe's division tow into blocks. one with freedom, one without. a division which lasted four and a half decades. as a result, germany has a special obligation of solidarity with countries which only won back their rights with
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internal and external self-determination in the peaceful revolutions of 1989 and 1990. [applause] the 21st of november 1990, just seven weeks after german reunification, the chancellor of paris was signed in the french charter. all 34 participating states of the conference on the security and cooperation in europe undertook to consolidate and strengthen democracy as the only system of government of our nation.
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with europe on the verge of a new era, the signatories including the soviet union, made commitments to settle disputes by peaceful means. they reaffirmed the principles of the helsinki act, signed 15 years earlier, which included respect for territorial integrity and political independence and a pledge to refrain from the threat or use of force. those days represent the end of the post-second world war era, it is the date of the signing of the charter of paris, the 21st of november, 1990. some of the hopes, as a new era dawned until 1991, were fulfilled. others were not. the old european occident, divided as a result of the
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agreement reached by the three -- the u.s., u.k., and the soviet union -- at yalta in 1945, has grown together, unlike in 1918, the zone of economic instability has emerged from -- [indiscernible] in fact, most of the region's democracies are part of the european union and the atlantic alliance. however, the addition of a community of peace stretching from vancouver to vladivostok from the great alliance of liberal democracy has not become reality. 2014 marked a major watershed.
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an illegal annexation of crimea has called into question the principles of the charter of paris and the peaceful european order on which the former cold war enemies had once agreed. germany is still in ongoing conflict over ukraine. germany has done everything in its power to safeguard the cohesion of the european union and the atlantic alliance. the same time, it has sought in consultation with its allies the rescue as much as possible of the policy of constructive cooperation on which east and west agreed to after the end of the war.
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there is one thing which it was an is always essential to bear in mind in this context, and is a lesson from german history. our neighbors in east central europe were the victims of german-soviet aggression due to the hitler pact in 1939 and 1940, and are now our partners in european union and the atlantic alliance. and poland in the baltic republics will never be given
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the impression by making decisions the heads over which they will pay the price. in late may, 1945, just a few weeks after the end of the second world war in europe tomas martin who had been an eloquent advocate set out his thoughts in english about germany and germans at the library of congress in washington. his speech, which he himself said was intended as a piece of german self-criticism contained a sentence that neatly encapsulated the conclusion of
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his reflection. and i quote. "the germans yielded to the temptation of basing upon there in a cosmopolitanism for germany to world domination. by this trait, it became the exact opposite. the hegemony of any one country is the way the unit sees itself. the responsibility for the use and cohesion of the supernatural community. this is reinforced by the responsibility of rising german history. it is rich at times, one that
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cannot be reduced to the period of 1943-1945. -- the transfer of power to hitler inevitable. but it did make those possible. it is both a european imperative and an enlightened patriotism. the third federal president in july of 1969. they are difficult. one of them is germany.
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but it is our fatherland. [applause] >> madam chancellor, president of the federal constitution court.
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ladies and gentlemen who witnessed the end of the second world war. professor gunter, the applause of the house and as many people throughout germany have been made clear how impressively you have described our country's long road west. even after 70 years, you made it clear what it means to pay tribute to the eighth of may. i want to thank you for this outstanding speech. [applause] the german who won the nobel
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prize for literature said about the end of the war, and i quote. i knew then that the war would never be over. never. the wound that was inflicted is still bleeding. the wounds which have not healed. it the wounds that create obligations for us. they oblige us. for peace, for tolerance. it was the beginning. the end of a tyrannical regime that showed utter contempt for human life and dignity and might save millions of lives and might
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perpetuate a systematic genocide of our country's history. let me say this explicitly. you were right in pointing out the unique nature of these events. 70 years from drawing a line under this. facing up to and dealing with the successful future. it also obliges us from the outset, making clear again and again that in germany, there is no place for those that agitate against democracy. the supplies to extremist across the spectrum. enter the backward looking news report of the national socialist ideology that so civil discord
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and wreak havoc. it must be curbed with a full force. and also with society as appropriate. as time goes on, the eighth of may, 1945 has become clearer than ever. the late president also described the different feelings, especially in a generation that actually witnessed that day. there were those for whom the
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day of liberation did not bring freedom. like citizens of other countries that found themselves under soviet influence. having one dictatorship simply replaced by another. it did not apply to everyone. that dictatorship established the basis for a new democratic germany and enabled our country to return to the community of civilized nations. as you pointed out, we cannot claim credit for this liberation.
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it took an external force. that is why i feel the need to express my profound gratitude today and my respect to those external forces that made such sacrifices in order to free us from this inferno. i would like to express my deep gratitude for those that made it possible for germany and on the part of democracy. [applause] the priority would prevent germany from ever being able to
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unleash another war. the federal system imposed by the allies proved to be a fortuitous choice. they started a new era not only from germany but for centuries europe's great powers. the assertion of powers and interest by territorial extensions. they were routinely deployed as instruments of poverty. a democratic value in human
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rights if it were to have any hope of success. for this reason, i am deeply convinced that a united europe of the european union were and are the right answer to the inferno. transcending orders. balancing beverage interests without warfare and asserting common interest. these are the real strengths of this united europe. [applause] reminding ourselves that this is essential in many of the diverse challenges that this united europe must master. professor winkler, as he pointed out, the conflict between russia and the ukraine, the struggle
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for a better future. not only economically but all the countries in this community. and the efforts to combat the reasons why people seek refuge in europe. they are just some of the examples of these challenges. [applause] ladies and gentlemen, our united europe is no paradise. i know of no other community of nations which offers a better guarantee of human rights, peace, freedom, and the rule of law. ladies and gentlemen remembering the events of 1945 and the years that preceded it is and will remain a core task on the german political agenda.
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as i see it, it sends a key message that is surely relevant to all of us now and in the future. in our own country and across the world. the eighth of may is about a fundamental attitude that must inform our actions. it is about mutual respect. it is about tolerance and it is about moral courage. every day, over and over again. please rise now for the european anthem. [applause]
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♪ ♪ [applause] ♪
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[applause] [speaking german] >> president obama discussed trade policy at nike headquarters. after that peter schweizer. then a discussion about government surveillance and transparency. former florida governor and potential presidential candidate jeb bush speaks at liberty university's 42nd commencement today. he announced he would actively
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run for president but there is no official announcement. we will show you a portion of the speech at 8:00 eastern on c-span. >> a look at some our featured programs. this morning at 10:00 we are live from greenville, south carolina for the freedom summit. speakers include scott walker, ted cruz, carly fiorina, ben carson, marco rubio. on sunday, members of america's first families remember first ladies, featuring the daughters of jack kennedy, lady bird johnson and robertbar bush. on book-tv jon krakauer on college towns and sexual assaults.
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sunday evening at 10:00, her life and military career. on american history tv on c-span 3 at 445:45 eastern remembering the liberation of nazi concentration camps with a teenager who escaped and lost his parents at auschwitz and questioned hitler's personal driver. then, the 70th anniversary of the end of the world war ii. get our complete schedule at c-span.org. >> the new congressional directory is a handy guide to the 114th congress with color photos every senator and house member, plus bio contact information and twitter handles.
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also a map of capitol hill and a look at congressional committees, the president's cabinet, and state governments. order your copy today. it is $13.95 plus shipping and handling through the c-span online store at c-span.org. >> president obama traveled to oregon to deliver remarks on trade. speaking at the nike world headquarters, he made the case for bipartisan trade promotion legislation. last month, senator ron wyden and orrin hatch gave the president the authority to make trade deals without amendments by congress. this is 35 minutes. [applause] >> good morning. not just a typical day at nike is it? it is an absolute honor to host president obama today. welcome to nike, mr. president. [cheers and applause]
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i'd also like to welcome representative bonamici and blumenaur who have been so important with partnership through the white house in their support of trade promotion authority. [applause] then i want to thank our partners in the oregon business community for being here today as well. [applause] you know, nike is a true american success story. 40 years ago we began selling shoes out of the back of a van. today we lead our industry helping athletes reach their potential in 190 countries and that journey was made possible because of the power of trade. nike is a company that stands for a lot of things. innovative products, pursuing
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athletic potential, but we are also proof that trade works. and we believe that companies should see that kind of success, all companies. we see it every day at nike. free trade opens doors. it removes barriers, it creates jobs, it lets us invest more in the things that matter. and that is innovation, it is creativity, and people. thanks to open markets, nike employs 26,000 people across this country. here in oregon, nike and our more than 8500 employees add $2.5 billion to this state's economy every year. [applause]
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of course, as our many friends who joined us today prove, economic growth like this doesn't happen in a vacuum. trade has powerful ripple effect. but free trade is not just critical for our present success. it drives our future growth. a free flow of goods in the global economy unleashes our capacity to invest and to innovate. i'm proud to say if the trans-pacific partnership is ratified nike will accelerate our efforts to begin advanced manufacturing here in the united states. [applause] over the next decade that could mean 10,000 new jobs in manufacturing and engineering from nike and our partners and up to 40,000 jobs across our supply chain. the future of nike and this country depend not only on what we make but how we make it and we want to get to the future faster.
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and that's why we support president obama's strong leadership on trade, and his hard work on the trans-pacific partnership. so thank you, and now, please give a huge nike welcome to president barack obama. [cheers and applause] ♪ [hail to the chief] [cheers and applause] president obama: hello, oregon. [applause]
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president obama: well, who arranged this day? every time i come to oregon, this is what it looks like. yeah, it never rains in oregon does it? never. all right. well, listen, it is wonderful to see all of you. first of all, please give mark another round of applause for his hospitality. [applause] and, thanks to everyone at nike for hosting us today here in federer plots. you know, the white house is cool. [laughing] we've got a basketball court. actually it's a tennis court that we repainted some lines when i came into office. so it is a combination basketball tennis court.
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there is a putting green that president eisenhower put in. can you imagine if i had put in a putting green? things have changed. [laughter] but, you've got all that, and the 18th tee box from pebble beach. come on. [applause] i'm sure some of my staff is running around right now in the michael jordan and mia hamm buildings. they want to be lab rats for your new gear. but, it is wonderful to be here. please give it up for two people who fight every single day for oregon workers, your representatives in congress, they do a great job. earl blumenauer, and suzanne bonamici. they are here. [applause] and there are two people who

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